Antonia Barke, Jenny Riecke, Winfried Rief, and Julia A Glombiewski (2015)

The Psychological Inflexibility in Pain Scale (PIPS) - validation, factor structure and comparison to the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ) and other validated measures in German chronic back pain patients

BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 16(1):171.

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for pain offers an alternative to traditional Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) approaches. ACT focuses on the enhancement of `psychological flexibility' that enables individuals to pursue their values and goals despite pain. To assess specific treatment effect or mediators and moderators of change, questionnaires measuring ACT constructs are needed.