Head of Department

Prof. Dr. phil. habil. Stefan Schulz-Hardt

Room: Room 3.104b, Goßlerstr. 14, 37073 Göttingen
Phone: +49 551 39 - 13561
Fax: +49 551 39 - 13570
Email: schulz-hardt(at)psych.uni-goettingen.de
Office Hours: Tue 1pm - 2pm
For changes of the office hours on a short notice please consult the website under the news section

Research Areas

  • Decision making processes in groups
  • Opinion conformable information processing and self-affirmation
  • Psychological saturation and inappropriate strain
  • Loss calculation
  • Price perception in course of the introduction of the euro

Publication in peer-reviewed journals:

Judgment and decision making processes in groups:

Brodbeck, F. C., Kerschreiter, R., Mojzisch, A., & Schulz-Hardt, S. (2007). Improving group decision making under conditions of distributed knowledge: The information asymmetries model. Academy of Management Review, 32, 459-479.

Faulmüller, N., Kerschreiter, K., Mojzisch, A. & Schulz-Hardt, S. (2010). Beyond group-level explanations for the failure of groups to solve hidden profiles: The individual preference effect revisited. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 13, 653-671.

Greitemeyer, T. & Schulz-Hardt, S. (2003). Preference-consistent evaluation of information in the hidden profile paradigm: Beyond group-level explanations for the dominance of shared information in group decisions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 322-339.

Greitemeyer, T., Schulz-Hardt, S., Brodbeck, F. C., & Frey, D. (2006). Information sampling and group decision making: The effects of an advocacy decision procedure and task experience. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 12, 31-42.

Mojzisch, A., Grouneva, L. & Schulz-Hardt, S. (2010). Biased evaluation of information during discussion: Disentangling the effects of preference consistency, social validation, and ownership of information. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 946–956.

Mojzisch, A., & Schulz-Hardt, S. (2010). Knowing others' preferences degrades the quality of group decisions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 794-808.

Mojzisch, A., & Schulz-Hardt, S. (2011). Process gains in group decision-making: A conceptual analysis, preliminary data, and tools for practitioners. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 26, 235-246 .

Mojzisch, A., Schulz-Hardt, S., Kerschreiter, R., Brodbeck, F. C., & Frey, D. (2008). Social validation in group decision making: Differential effects on the decisional impact of preference-consistent and preference-inconsistent information. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1477-1490.

Schultze, T., Mojzisch, A. & Schulz-Hardt, S. (2012). Why groups perform better than individuals at quantitative judgment tasks: Group-to-individual transfer as an alternative to differential weighting. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. Advance online publication. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2011.12.006


Schultze, T., Mojzisch, A., & Schulz-Hardt, S. (2013). Groups weight outside information less than individuals because they should: Response to Minson and Mueller (2012). Psychological Science.

Schulz-Hardt, S., Brodbeck, F. C., Mojzisch, A., Kerschreiter, R. & Frey, D. (2006). Group decision making in hidden profile situations: Dissent as a facilitator for decision quality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 1080-1093.

Schulz-Hardt, S., Frey, D., Lüthgens C. & Moscovici, S. (2000). Biased information search in group decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 655-669.


Schulz-Hardt, S., Jochims, M. & Frey, D. (2002). Productive conflict in group decision making: Genuine and contrived dissent as strategies to counteract biased information seeking. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 88, 563-586.


Schulz-Hardt, S., & Mojzisch, A. (2012). How to achieve synergy in group decision making: Lessons to be learned from the hidden profile paradigm.European Review of Social Psychology23(1), 305-343.



Opinion conformable information processing and self-affirmation:

Fischer, P., Jonas, E., Frey, D., & Schulz-Hardt, S. (2005). Selective exposure to information: The impact of information limits. European Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 469-492.


Fischer, P., Schulz-Hardt, S. & Frey, D. (2008). Selective exposure and information quantity: How different information quantities moderate decision makers' preference for consistent and inconsistent information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 231-244.

Jonas, E., Schulz-Hardt, S. & Frey, D. (2005). Giving advice or making decisions in someone else’s place: The influence of impression, defense, and accuracy motivation on the search for new information. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 977-990.

Jonas, E., Schulz-Hardt, S., Frey, D. & Thelen, N. (2001). Confirmation bias in sequential information search after preliminary decisions: An expansion of dissonance theoretical research on "selective exposure to information". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 557-571.

Mojzisch, A., Schulz-Hardt, S., Kerschreiter, R. & Frey, D. (2008). Combined effects of knowledge about others’ opinions and anticipation of discussion on confirmatory information search. Small Group Research, 39, 203-223.


Psychological saturation and inappropriate strain:

Häusser, J. A., Mojzisch, A., Niesel, M. & Schulz-Hardt, S. (2010). Ten years on: A review of recent research on the Job-Demand-Control(-Support) Model and psychological well-being. Work & Stress, 24, 1-35.

Häusser, J. A., Mojzisch, A., & Schulz-Hardt, S. (2011). Endocrinological and psychological responses to job stressors: An experimental test of the Job Demand-Control Model. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36, 1021-1031.

Mojzisch, A. & Schulz-Hardt, S. (2007). Being fed up: A social cognitive neuroscience approach to mental satiation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1118, 186-205.

Schulz-Hardt, S., Meinken, I., Rott, A. & Frey, D. (2001). Psychische Sättigung: Eine neue experimentelle Untersuchung zu einem alten Konstrukt. Zeitschrift für Experimentelle Psychologie, 48, 188-200.

Schulz-Hardt, S., Rott, A., Meinken, I. & Frey, D. (2001). Ein weiterentwickeltes Modell psychischer Sättigung. Psychologische Rundschau, 52, 141-149.


Loss calculation:

Greitemeyer, T., Schulz-Hardt, S. & Frey, D. (2009). The effects of authentic and contrived dissent on escalation of commitment in group decision making. European Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 639-647.


Greitemeyer, T., Schulz-Hardt, S., Popien, G. & Frey, D. (2005). Der Einfluss versunkener monetärer und zeitlicher Kosten auf Ressourcenallokationen: Eine Studie zum "sunk-cost-Effekt" mit Experten. Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, 49, 35-43.

Pfeiffer, F., Schönborn, S, Mojzisch, A. & Schulz-Hardt, S. (2007). Der Einfluss einer uneindeutigen Informationslage auf eskalierendes Commitment: Ein Test der "Decision Dilemma Theory". Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, 51, 168-179.

Schultze, T., Pfeiffer, F. & Schulz-Hardt, S. (2012). Biased information processing in the escalation paradigm: Information search and information evaluation as potential mediators of escalating commitment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97, 16-32.

Schulz-Hardt, S., Thurow-Kröning, B. & Frey, D. (2009). Preference-based escalation: A new interpretation for the responsibility effect in escalating commitment and entrapment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 108, 175-186.

Schulz-Hardt, S., Vogelgesang, F., Pfeiffer, F., Mojzisch, A. & Thurow-Kröning, B. (2010). When forewarning backfires: Paradoxical effects of elaborating social feedback on entrapment in a losing course of action. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 23, 404–420.


Price perception in course of the introduction of the euro:

Greitemeyer, T., Schulz-Hardt, S., Traut-Mattausch, E. & Frey, D. (2005). The influence of price trend expectations on price trend perceptions: Why the Euro seems to make life more expensive. Journal of Economic Psychology, 26, 541-548.

Traut-Mattausch, E., Greitemeyer, T., Frey, D. & Schulz-Hardt, S. (2007). Illusory price increases after the Euro changeover in Germany: An expectancy-consistent bias. Journal of Consumer Policy, 30, 421-434.

Traut-Mattausch, E., Schulz-Hardt, S., Greitemeyer, T. & Frey, D.(2004). Expectancy confirmation in spite of disconfirming evidence: The case of price increases due to the introduction of the Euro. European Journal of Social Psychology, 34, 739-760.



Academic career

1993: Diploma in Psychology at the Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel. Thesis on requirements of conflict escalation and de-escalation

1996: Dissertation (Dr. phil.) at the Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel. Dissertation on “escapism in decision making processes”

2002: Habilitation at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich

1993-1998: Research Assistant at the Department of Psychology of the Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel. Instructor of courses such as Quantitative Methods (Statistics). DFG- project work at the Department of Psychology of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich.

1998-2002: Research Assistant at the Institute for Psychology (Chair of Social Psychology) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich

2003-2004: Professor for Social and Finance Psychology at the Technische Universität Dresden

Since 2004: Professor for Industrial, Business and Social Psychology at the Geor-August-University Göttingen