and Sascha Schroeder

What readers have and do: Effects of students' verbal ability and reading time components on comprehension with and without text availability

Journal of Educational Psychology

This study investigated the reading behavior of 15-year-old students while reading texts and answering corresponding multiple-choice questions. The availability of the texts during question answering was manipulated experimentally. Allocation of resources to several cognitive processes at the word, sentence, and text level was measured by decomposing word-by-word reading times in mixed-model analyses. Results showed that resource allocation was systematically related to measures of verbal ability and test performance. Students with higher verbal ability and better comprehension encoded infrequent concepts more carefully, spent more time on conceptual integration, and updated their situation model more carefully. In addition, reading time components associated with high-level integration processing proved more important when students were unable to reread the texts during question answering. This finding provides support for the claim that test performance without text availability is more sensitive to the quality of the mental representation that readers form online while reading. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Accession Number: 2011-12691-001. Partial author list: First Author & Affiliation: Schroeder, Sascha; Center for Educational Research, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany. Other Publishers: Warwick & York. Release Date: 20110620. Correction Date: 20130318. Publication Type: Journal (0100), Peer Reviewed Journal (0110). Format Covered: Electronic. Document Type: Journal Article. Language: English. Major Descriptor: Reading; Reading Comprehension; Verbal Ability. Minor Descriptor: Cognitive Processes. Classification: Academic Learning & Achievement (3550). Population: Human (10); Male (30); Female (40). Location: Germany. Age Group: Adolescence (13-17 yrs) (200). Tests & Measures: CFT 20 Vocabulary Knowledge Test; Daneman and Carpenter (1980) Reading Span task; Cognitive Abilities Test, German Version (KFT 4-12+R); Verstandiges Lesen 7–9, Forms A and B; Flesch’s (1951) reading ease index, German adaptation; Lexical-decision Task DOI: 10.1037/t19791-000. Methodology: Empirical Study; Quantitative Study. References Available: Y. Page Count: 20. Issue Publication Date: Nov, 2011. Publication History: First Posted Date: Jun 20, 2011; Accepted Date: Mar 30, 2011; Revised Date: Mar 25, 2011; First Submitted Date: Mar 31, 2010. Copyright Statement: American Psychological Association. 2011.