Blackwell, Simon

Simon Blackwell is a postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology, University of Göttingen. You can find out more about his research and other professional activities via the links on the right hand side of this page. 

Research Interests

  • Mental imagery, in particular positive mental imagery, its role in psychopathology and healthy functioning, and how we can use it in interventions
  • Translational research methods, from single case designs to randomized controlled trials, and how we can make translational research more efficient
  • Developing of scalable (e.g. computerized) interventions based on our understanding of the mechanisms underling psychopathology and healthy functioning.

Scientific & Social Media Profile

osf.jpg Open Science Framework :
gs.png Google Scholar: Simon Blackwell
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orcid.jpg ORCID: 0000-0002-3313-7084
twitter.png Twitter /X: @Blackwell_SE
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Other External Professional Activities


(click here to skip down to book chapters and other non-journal publications)


  • Bergunde, L., Woud, M. L., Shkreli, L., Schindler-Gmelch, L., Garthus-Niegel, S., Blackwell, S. E., Kirschbaum, C., Kessler, H., & Steudte-Schmiedgen, S. (2024, May 31). The role of hair endocannabinoid concentrations in clinical symptoms and treatment outcome in female inpatients with posttraumatic stress disorder.
  • Shkreli, L., Woud, M. L., Bergunde, L., Schindler-Gmelch, L., Blackwell, S. E., Kirschbaum, C., Kessler, H., & Steudte-Schmiedgen, S. (2024, May 4). The role of long-term hair steroids as diagnostic and intervention-related markers in a multimorbid inpatient sample with posttraumatic stress disorder.
  • Bagheri, M., Woud, M. L., Simon, J., Abdalla, L., Dombrowe, M., Woinek, C., Margraf, J., & Blackwell, S. E. (2023, December 21). Inducing Positive Involuntary Mental Imagery in Daily Life Using Personalized Photograph Stimuli.
  • Blackwell, S. E., Rölver, A., Margraf, J., & Woud, M. L. (2023, December 6). The Effect of Positive Mental Imagery versus Positive Verbal Thoughts on Anhedonia.
  • Würtz, F., Kunna, M., Lindgraf, C., Blackwell, S. E., Margraf, J., Everaert, J., & Woud, M. L. (2023). Interpretation Biases in Anxiety – A Three-Level Meta-Analysis.
  • Kiefer, C., Woud, M. L., Blackwell, S. E., & Mayer, A. (2023, September 4). Average Treatment Effects on Binary Outcomes with Stochastic Covariates.
  • Bagheri, M., Woud, M. L., Feller, A., Laudi, J., Kirchner, G. D., Schneider, H., Margraf, J., & Blackwell, S. E. (2023, July 12). Investigating the Role of Imagery Vividness in the Experience of Involuntary Memories of Previously-Imagined Positive Scenarios.
  •  Cwik, J. C., Spies, J. D., Kessler, H., Herpertz, S., Woud, M. L., Blackwell, S. E., … Köhler, K. (2023, May 16). Psychometric properties of the German version of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5) in routine clinical settings: a multi-trait/multi-method study in civilians and military personnel.
  • MacLennan K., Schwannauer M., McLaughlin A. L., Allan, S., Blackwell, S. E., Ashworth, F., & Chan, S. W. Y. (2023, May). Project Soothe: A pilot study evaluating the mood effects of soothing images collected using a citizen science approach [version 1; peer review: awaiting peer review]. Wellcome Open Research, 8:218. 

Journal articles

in press
  • Maxwell Watts, J., Blackwell, S.E. & Daniels, J. Intrusive Mental Imagery in Chronic Pain: Prevalence and Associations with Common Comorbidities. Cognitive Therapy and Research (in press).
  • Blackwell, S. E. (in press). Using the ‘Leapfrog’ Design as a Simple Form of Adaptive Platform Trial to Develop, Test, and Implement Treatment Personalization Methods in Routine Practice. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research.
  • Bagheri, M., Woud, M. L., Fachri Oglou, I., Fachri Oglou, F., Ratzkowski, J. D. J., Margraf, J., & Blackwell, S. E. (in press). An Experimental Investigation of the Causal Role of Mental Imagery in the Experience of Involuntary Memories. Journal of Emotion and Psychopathology  (view preprint version)
  • De Nicola, R., Blackwell, S. E., Hirata, E., & Daniels, J. (2024). ‘Knees being set on fire’: a qualitative study exploring the impact of intrusive mental imagery on chronic pain patients. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist17, e19. 
  • Würtz, F., Kube, T., Woud, M. L., Margraf, J., & Blackwell, S. E. (2024). Reduced Belief Updating in the Context of Depressive Symptoms – An Investigation of the Associations with Interpretation Biases and Self-Evaluation. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 48, 225-241.
  • Fink-Lamotte, J., Hilbert, K., Bentz, D., Blackwell, S. E., Boehnke, J. R., Burghardt, J., Cludius, B., Ehrenthal, J. C., Elsaesser, M., Haberkamp, A., Hechler, T., Kräplin, A., Paret, C., Schulze, L., Wilker, S. & Niemeyer, H., (2024). Response to responsible research assessment I and II from the perspective of the DGPs working group on open science in clinical psychology. Metapsychology, 8, MP.2023.3794.  
  • Deisenhofer, A.-K., Barkham, M., Beierl, E. T., Schwartz, B., Aafjes-van Doorn, K., Beevers, C. G., Berwian, I. M., Blackwell, S. E., Bockting, C. L., Brakemeier, E.-L., Brown, G., Buckman, J. E. J., Castonguay, L. G., Cusack, C. E., Dalgleish, T., de Jong, K., Delgadillo, J., DeRubeis, R. J., Driessen, E., … Cohen, Z. D. (2024). Implementing precision methods in personalizing psychological therapies: Barriers and possible ways forward. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 172, 104443.
  • Bibi, A., Blackwell, S. E., & Margraf, J. (2024). Positive Mental Imagery and Mental Health amongst University Students in Pakistan. International Journal of Psychology, 59, 55-63.
  • Blackwell, S. E., Schönbrodt, F. D., Woud, M. L., Wannemüller, A., Bektas, B., Rodrigues, M. B., Hirdes, J., Stumpp, M., & Margraf, J. (2023). Demonstration of a ‘leapfrog’ randomized controlled trial as a method to accelerate the development and optimization of psychological interventions. Psychological Medicine, 53, 6113-6123.   
  • Blackwell, S. E., Wilhelm, F. H., Reinecke, A., Margraf, J., & Woud, M. L. (2023). Measuring Symptom-Specific Panic-Relevant Associations Using Single-Target Implicit Association Tests. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 47,720–731.
  • Landrø, N. I., Harmer, C. J., Blackwell, S. E., Ragnhild, B., Dawson, G. R., Solbø Hagen, H., Goodwin, G., Kingslake, J., Klovning, A., Klungsøyr, O., Schjøtt-Pedersen, O., Sæther, A. K., Stensland Torgersen, K., Vaaler, A., Andreassen, O. A., Røssberg., J. I. (2023). Combining Antidepressants and Attention Bias Modification in Primary Health Care (Deptreat): Protocol for a Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 133, 107326.
  • Blackwell, S. E., Ehring, T., Gladwin, T., Margraf, J., & Woud, M. L. (2023). The relationship between self-traumatized and self-vulnerable automatic associations and posttraumatic stress symptoms among adults who have experienced a distressing life event. Current Psychology, 42, 11674–11684.
  • Würtz, F., Steinman, S., Blackwell, S. E., Wilhelm, F. H., Reinecke, A., Adolph, D., Margraf, J., & Woud, M. L. (2023). Effects of Training Body-Related Interpretations on Panic-Related Cognitions and Symptoms. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 47, 494-509.
  • Würtz, F., Blackwell, S. E., Margraf, J., & Woud, M. L. (2022). The world dangerous it is – The scrambled sentences task for in the context of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 13(3), 20438087221124737.
  •  Blackwell, S. E., & Woud, M. L. (2022). Making the leap: From experimental psychopathology to clinical trials. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 13(1), 20438087221080076.
  •  Würtz, F., Zahler, L., Blackwell, S. E., Margraf, J., Bagheri, M., & Woud, M. L. (2022). Scrambled but valid? The scrambled sentences task as a measure of interpretation biases in psychopathology: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 93, 102133.
  •  Würtz, F., Krans, J., Blackwell, S. E., Cwik, J. C., Margraf, J., & Woud, M. L. (2022). Using Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal Training to Manipulate Appraisals about the Self and the World in Analog Trauma. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 46, 232-246.
  • Westermann, K., Woud, M. L., Cwik, J. C., Graz, C., Nyhuis, P., Margraf, J., & Blackwell, S. E. (2021). Feasibility of computerized positive mental imagery training as a treatment adjunct in inpatient mental health settings: a randomized controlled trial. BJPsychOpen, 7, e203.
  • Zahler, L., Meyers, M., Woud, M. L., Blackwell, S. E., Margraf, J., & Velten, J. (2021). Using three indirect measures to assess the role of sexuality-related associations and interpretations for women’s sexual desire: An Internet-based experimental study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 50, 2471-2484.
  • Wannemüller, A., Kumsta, R., Jöhren, H-P., Eley, T. C., Teismann, T., Moser, D., Rayner, C., Breen, G., Schaumburg, S., Blackwell, S. E., & Margraf, J. (2021). Genes in treatment: polygenic risk scores for different psychopathologies, neuroticism, educational attainment and IQ and the outcome of two different exposure-based fear treatments. The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 22, 699-712.
  • Woud, M. L., Blackwell, S. E., Shkreli, L., Würtz, F., Cwik, J. C., Margraf, J., Holmes, E. A., Steudte-Schmiedgen, S., Herpertz, S., & Kessler, H. (2021). The effects of modifying dysfunctional appraisals in post-traumatic stress disorder using a form of cognitive bias modification: Results of a randomized controlled trial in an inpatient setting. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 90, 386-402.
  • Pile, V., Smith, P., Leamy, M., Oliver, A., Blackwell, S. E., Meiser-Stedman, R., Dunn, B. D., Holmes, E. A., & Lau, J. Y. F. (2021). Harnessing mental imagery and enhancing memory specificity: developing a brief early intervention for depressive symptoms in adolescence. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 45, 885-901.
  • Pile, V., Smith, P., Leamy, M., Oliver, A., Bennett, E., Blackwell, S. E., Meiser-Stedman, R., Stringer, D., Dunn, B. D., Holmes, E. A., Lau, J. Y. F. (2021). A feasibility randomised controlled trial of a brief early intervention for adolescent depression that targets emotional mental images and memory specificity (IMAGINE trial). Behaviour Research and Therapy, 143, 103876.
  • Wong, S. F., Vaillancourt, S., Grossman, S., Kelly-Turner, K., Blackwell, S. E., Ellenbogen, M. A. (2021) Intranasal oxytocin increases state anhedonia following imagery training of positive social outcomes in individuals lower in extraversion, trust-altruism, and openness to experience. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 165, 8-17.
  • Bibi, A., Blackwell, S. E., & Margraf, J. (2021). Mental health, suicidal ideation, and experience of bullying among university students in Pakistan. Journal of Health Psychology, 26, 1185-1196.
  • Blackwell, S. E. & Heidenreich, T. (2021). Cognitive Behavior Therapy at the crossroads. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 14, 1-22.
  • Blackwell, S. E. (2021). Mental imagery in the science and practice of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy: past, present, and future perspectives. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 14, 160-181.
  • Koerner, N., & Blackwell, S. E. (2021). Mental imagery in chronic worry and generalized anxiety disorder: Shining a spotlight on a key research and clinical target. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 137, 103785.
  • Blackwell, S. E., Dooley, D., Würtz, F., Woud, M. L., & Margraf, J. (2020). Inducing positive involuntary mental imagery in everyday life: an experimental investigation. Memory, 28, 1157-1172. 
  • Iyadurai, L., Hales, S. A., Blackwell, S. E., Young, K., & Holmes, E. A. (2020). Targeting intrusive imagery using a competing task technique: a case study. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 48, 739-744. 
  • Blackwell, S. E. (2020). Clinical efficacy of cognitive bias modification interventions. Lancet Psychiatry, 7, 465-467. pdf.gif
  • Spies, J. P., Woud, M. L., Kessler, H., Rau, H., Willmund, G. D., Köhler, K., Herpertz, S., Blackwell, S. E., Bovin, M. J., Marx, B., & Cwik, J. C. (2020). Psychometric properties of the German version of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5) in clinical routine settings: study design and protocol of a multitrait-multimethods study. BMJ Open, 10:e036078.    
  • Bibi, A., Margraf, J., & Blackwell, S. E. (2020). Positive imagery cognitive bias modification for symptoms of depression amongst university students in Pakistan: a pilot study. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 11. 
  • Miragall, M., Borrego, A., Cebolla, A., Etchemendy, E., Navarro-Siurana, J., Llorens, R., Blackwell, S. E., & Baños, R. M. (2020). Effect of an upright (vs. Stooped) posture on interpretation bias, imagery, and emotions. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 68, 101560.. 
  • Kessler, H., Schmidt, A.-C., James, E. L., Blackwell, S. E., von Rauchhaupt, M., Harren, K., Kehyayan, A., Clark, I. A., Sauvage, M., Herpertz, S., Axmacher, N., & Holmes, E. A. (2020). Visuospatial computer game play after memory reactivation delivered three days after a traumatic film reduces the number of intrusive memories of the experimental trauma. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 67, 101454. 
  • Blackwell, S. E., Woud, M. L., Margraf, J., & Schönbrodt, F. D. (2019). Introducing the leapfrog design: A simple Bayesian adaptive rolling trial design for accelerated treatment development and optimization. Clinical Psychological Science, 7, 1222-1243. (view preprint version)
  • Blackwell, S. E. (2019). Mental imagery: from basic research to clinical practice. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 29, 235-247.  
  • Velten, J., Blackwell, S. E., Margraf, J., & Woud, M. L. (2019). Assessing Cognitive Appraisals Related to Sexual Function: A Scenario-Based Approach. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 48, 781-794. 
  • Woud, M. L., Cwik, J. C., de Kleine, R. A., Blackwell, S. E., Würtz, F., Margraf, J. (2019). Assessing trauma-related appraisals by means of a scenario-based approach. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 43, 185-198. 
  • Murphy, F. C., Peers, P. V., Blackwell, S. E., Holmes, E. A., & Manly, T. (2019). Anticipated and imagined futures: prospective cognition and depressed mood following brain injury. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 91-109.
  • Kessler, H., Holmes, E. A., Blackwell, S. E., Schmidt, A., Schweer, J. M., Bücker, A., Herpertz, S., Axmacher, N., Kehyayan, A. (2018). Reducing intrusive memories of trauma using a visuospatial interference intervention with inpatients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 86, 1076-1090. 
  • Hales, S. A., Di Simplicio, M., Iyadurai, L., Blackwell, S. E., Young, K., Fairburn, C. G., Geddes, J. R., Goodwin, G. M., & Holmes, E. A. (2018). Imagery-focused cognitive therapy (ImCT) for mood instability and anxiety in a small sample of patients with bipolar disorder: a pilot clinical audit. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 46, 706-725. 
  • Blackwell, S. E., Westermann, K., Woud, M. L., Cwik, J. C., Neher, T., Graz, C., Nyhuis, P. W., & Margraf, J. (2018). Computerized positive mental imagery training versus cognitive control training versus treatment as usual in inpatient mental health settings: study protocol for a randomized controlled feasibility trial. BMC Pilot and Feasibility Studies, 4: 133. 
  • Woud, M. L., Blackwell, S. E., Cwik, J. C., Margraf, J., Holmes, E. A., Steudte-Schmiedgen, S., Herpertz, S., & Kessler, H. (2018). Augmenting inpatient treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder with a computerized cognitive bias modification procedure targeting appraisals (CBM-App): Protocol for a randomized controlled trial. BMJ Open, 8: e019964. 
  • Pile, V., Smith, P., Leamy, M., Blackwell, S. E., Meiser-Stedman, R., Stringer, D., Ryan, E. G., Dunn, B. D., Holmes, E. A., & Lau, J. Y. F. (2018). A brief early intervention for adolescent depression that targets emotional mental images and memories: protocol for a feasibility randomised controlled trial (IMAGINE trial). BMC Pilot and Feasibility Studies, 4, 97. 
  • Woud, M. L., Blackwell, S. E., Steudte-Schmiedgen, S., Browning, M., Holmes, E. A., Harmer, C. J., Margraf, J., & Reinecke, A. (2018). Investigating d-cycloserine as a potential pharmacological enhancer of an emotional bias learning procedure. Psychopharmacology, 32, 569-577.
  •  Woud, M. L., Zlomuzica, A., Cwik, J., Margraf, J., Shrekli, L., Blackwell, S. E., Gladwin, T., & Ehring, T. (2018). Effects of appraisal training on responses to recalling a distressing autobiographical event. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 56, 26-34. 
  • Iyadurai, L., Blackwell, S. E., Meiser-Stedman, R., Watson, P. C., Bonsall, M. B., Geddes, J. R., Nobre, A. C., & Holmes, E. A. (2018). Preventing intrusive memories after trauma via a brief intervention involving Tetris computer game play in the Emergency Department: a proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial. Molecular Psychiatry, 23, 674-682. 
  • Woud, M. L., Cwik, J. C., Blackwell, S. E., Kleim, B., Holmes, E. A., Adolph, D., Zhang, H., & Margraf, J. (2018). Does napping enhance the effects of Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal training? An experimental study. PloS ONE 13(2): e0192837.
  • Blackwell, S. E., Woud, M. L, & MacLeod, C. (2017) A question of control? Examining the role of control conditions in experimental psychopathology using the example of cognitive bias modification research. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 20: e54. pdf.gif
  • Murphy, S. E., O’Donoghue, M. C., Blackwell, S. E., Nobre, A. C., Browning, M., & Holmes, E. A. (2017). Increased Rostral Anterior Cingulate Activity following positive mental imagery training in healthy older adults. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 12, 1950-1958. 
  • de Voogd, L., de Hullu, E., Burnett Heyes, S., Blackwell, S. E., Wiers, R. W., Salemink, E. (2017). Imagine the bright side of life: A randomized controlled trial of two types of interpretation bias modification procedure targeting adolescent anxiety and depression. PLoS ONE 12(7): e0181147. 
  • Renner, F., Ji, J. L., Pictet, A., Holmes, E. A., & Blackwell, S. E. (2017). Effects of engaging in repeated mental imagery of future positive events on behavioural activation in individuals with major depressive disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 41, 369-380. 
  • Blackwell, S. E., & Holmes, E. A. (2017). Brightening the day with flashes of positive mental imagery: a case study of an individual with depression. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 73, 579-589.
  • Horsch, A., Vial, Y., Favrod, C., Harari, M. M., Blackwell, S. E., Watson, P., Iyadurai, L., Bonsall, M. B., & Holmes, E. A. (2017). Reducing intrusive traumatic memories after emergency caesarean section: a proof-of-principle randomized controlled study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 94, 36-47.
  • Burnett Heyes, S., Pictet, A., Mitchell, H., Raeder, S. M., Lau, J. Y. F., Holmes, E. A., & Blackwell, S.E. (2017). Mental imagery-based training to modify mood and cognitive bias in adolescents. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 41, 73-88.
  • Hitchcock, C., Werner-Seidler, A., Blackwell, S. E., & Dalgleish, T. (2017). Autobiographical episodic memory-based training for the treatment of mood, anxiety and stress-related disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 52, 92-107. 
  • Wannemueller, A., Adoph, D., Joehren, H., Blackwell, S. E. & Margraf, J. (2017). Psychophysiological reactivity of currently dental phobic-, remitted dental phobic- and never-dental phobic individuals during exposure to dental-related and other affect-inducing materials. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 90, 76-86. 
  • Ji, J. L., Holmes, E. A., & Blackwell, S. E. (2017). Seeing light at the end of the tunnel: positive prospective mental imagery and optimism in depression. Psychiatry Research, 247, 155-162. 
  • Cwik, J. C., Till, B., Bieda, A., Blackwell, S. E., Walter, C., Teismann, T. (2017). Measuring attitudes towards suicide: Preliminary evaluation of an attitude towards suicide scale. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 72, 56-65.
  • Di Simplicio, M., Renner, F., Blackwell, S. E., Mitchell, H., Stratford, H. J., Watson, P., Myers, N., Nobre, A. C., Lau-Zhu, A., & Holmes, E. A. (2016). An investigation of mental imagery in bipolar disorder: Exploring “the mind’s eye”. Bipolar Disorders, 18, 669-683.  
  • Moss, A., Curran, H. V., Bloomfield, M. A. P., Kamboj, S. K., Blackwell, S. E., & Freeman, T. P. (2016). Bringing together pharmacological and psychological approaches to mental health research. Lancet Psychiatry, 3, 700-702, 
  • Holmes, E. A., Blackwell, S. E., Burnett Heyes, S., Renner, F., & Raes, F. (2016). Mental imagery in depression: phenomenology, potential mechanisms, and treatment implications. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 12, 249-280. 
  • Holmes, E. A., Bonsall, M. B., Hales, S. A., Mitchell, H., Renner, F., Blackwell, S. E., Watson, P., Goodwin, G. M., & Di Simplicio, M. (2016). Applications of time-series analysis to mood fluctuations in bipolar disorder to promote treatment innovation: A case series. Translational Psychiatry, 6, e720.  
  • Blackwell, S. E., Browning, M., Mathews, A., Pictet, A., Welch, J., Davies, J., Watson, P., Geddes, J. R., & Holmes, E. A. (2015). Positive imagery-based cognitive bias modification as a web-based treatment tool for depressed adults: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical Psychological Science, 3, 91-111.
    Murphy, S. E., O’Donoghue, C. M., Drazich, E. H. S., Blackwell, S. E., Nobre, A. C., & Holmes, E. A. (2015). Imagining a brighter future: the effect of positive imagery training on mood, prospective mental imagery and emotional bias in older adults. Psychiatry Research, 230, 36-43.
    Williams, A. D., O’Moore, K., Blackwell, S. E., Smith, J., Holmes, E. A., & Andrews, G. (2015). Positive imagery cognitive bias modification (CBM) and internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT): A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Affective Disorders, 178, 131-141.
    Stratford, H. J., Cooper, M. J., Di Simplicio, M., Blackwell, S. E., & Holmes, E. A. (2015). Psychological therapy for anxiety in bipolar spectrum disorders: a systematic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 35, 19-34.
  • Torkan, H., Blackwell, S. E., Holmes, E. A., Kalantari, M., Neshat-Doost, H. T., Maroufi, M., & Talebi, H. (2014). Positive imagery cognitive bias modification in treatment-seeking patients with major depression in Iran: a pilot study. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 38, 132-145.
  • Rohrbacher, H., Blackwell, S. E., Holmes, E. A. & Reinecke, A. (2014). Optimizing the ingredients for imagery-based interpretation bias modification for depressed mood: is self-generation more effective than imagination alone? Journal of Affective Disorders, 152-154, 212-218.
  • Clarke, P. J. F., Nanthakumar, S., Notebaert, L., Holmes, E. A., Blackwell, S. E., & MacLeod, C. (2014).  Simply imagining sunshine, lollipops and rainbows will not budge the bias: The role of ambiguity in interpretive bias modification. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 38, 120-131.
  • Vassilopoulos, S.P., Blackwell, S. E., Missailidi, P., Kyritsi, A., & Ayfanti, M. (2014). The differential effects of written and spoken presentation for the modification of interpretation and judgmental bias in children. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 42, 535-554.
  • Williams, A. D., Blackwell, S. E., Holmes, E. A., & Andrews, G. (2013). Positive imagery cognitive bias modification (CBM) and internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) versus control CBM and iCBT for depression: Study protocol for a parallel-group randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open, 3: e004049.
  • Williams, A. D., Blackwell, S. E., Mackenzie, A., Holmes, E. A., & Andrews, G. (2013). Combining imagination and reason in the treatment of depression: A randomized controlled trial of internet-based cognitive bias modification and internet-CBT for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 793-799.
  • Blackwell, S. E., Rius-Ottenheim, N., Schulte-van Maaren, Y. W. M., Carlier, I. V. E., Middelkoop, V. D., Zitman, F. G., Spinhoven, P., Holmes, E. A., & Giltay, E. J. (2013). Optimism and mental imagery: a possible cognitive marker to promote wellbeing? Psychiatry Research, 206, 56-61.
  • Browning, M., Blackwell, S. E., & Holmes, E. A. (2013). The use of cognitive bias modification and imagery in the understanding and treatment of depression. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences, 14, 243–260.
  • Lang, T. J., Blackwell, S. E., Harmer, C., Davison, P., & Holmes, E. A. (2012). Cognitive bias modification using mental imagery for depression: developing a novel computerized intervention to change negative thinking styles. European Journal of Personality, 26, 145-157.
  • Davies, C., Malik, A., Pictet, A., Blackwell, S. E., & Holmes, E. A. (2012). Involuntary Memories after a Positive Film are Dampened by a Visuospatial Task: Unhelpful in Depression but Helpful in Mania? Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 19, 341-351.
  • Vassilopolous, S. P., Blackwell, S. E., Moberly, N. J., & Karahaliou, E. (2012). Comparing imagery and verbal training instructions for the experimental modification of interpretation and judgmental bias in children. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 43, 594-601.
  • Holmes, E. A., James, E. L., Blackwell, S. E., & Hales, S. (2011). ‘They flash upon that inward eye’. The Psychologist, 24, 340-343.
  • Blackwell, S. E., & Holmes, E. A. (2010). Modifying interpretation and imagination in clinical depression: A single case series using cognitive bias modification. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24, 338-350.

Book chapters

  • Blackwell, S. E. (2023). Mental imagery and interpretational processing biases. In M. L. Woud (Ed.), Interpretational Processing Biases in Emotional Psychopathology: From Experimental Investigation to Clinical Practice (pp. 97–116). Springer International Publishing.
  • Hales, S. A., Young, K., Iyadurai, L., Blackwell, S. E., Kanstrup, M., & Holmes, E. A. (2022). Working with mental imagery in clinical psychology. In G. J. G. Asmundson (Ed.), Comprehensive Clinical Psychology, Second Edition. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 
  • Blackwell, S. E. (2020). Emotional Mental Imagery. In A. Abraham (Ed.), Cambridge Handbook of the Imagination (pp. 241-257). Cambridge University Press. pdf.gif
  • Kessler, H., Blackwell, S. E., & Kehyayan, A. (2017). Reconsolidation and trauma memory. In N. Axmacher & B. Rasch (Eds.), Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory Consolidation. Basel: Springer.
  • Hales, S., Blackwell, S. E., Di Simplicio, M., Iyadurai, L., Young, K., & Holmes, E. A. (2015). Imagery-based cognitive-behavioral assessment. In G. P. Brown & D. A. Clark (Eds.), Assessment in Cognitive Therapy. New York: Guilford Press.

Edited volume

  • Heidenreich, T., Tata, P., & Blackwell, S. (Eds.) (2019). Proceedings of the 9th World Congress of Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies. Tübingen: dgvt-Verlag.

Public communication of science and media interest

  • Article for Aeon+Psyche magazine on positive involuntary imagery, “It’s possible to help more positive images pop into your mind” (September 2021):
  • Video interview for „The Integrative Therapist“ magazine (November 2019), about the 2019 article on mental imagery in the Journal of Psychotherapy Integration.
  •  Zimmerman, S. (2016). Mentales Vorkosten weckt die Lebensgeister. Gehirn und Geist, 10, 56. Article about the paper Renner et al. (2017) in Cognitive Therapy and Research.