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  • Vrijsen, J., Grafton, B., Koster, E. H. W., Lau, J., Wittekind, C., Lab, B. H., Becker, E. S., Brotman, M. A., Joormann, J., Lazarov, A., MacLeod, C., Manning, V., Pettit, J., Rinck, M., Salemink, E., Woud, M. L., Hallion, L. S., & Wiers, R. (2024). Towards implementation of cognitive bias modification in mental health care: State of the science, best practices, and ways forward.
  • Zoabi, D., Abado, E., Shamay-Tsoory, S., & Peled-Avron, L. (2023). Infectious touching: Has COVID-19 changed our perceptions of social touch? A neural and behavioral study. bioRxiv, 2023-09.‏ doi:
  • Bagheri, M., Woud, M. L., Simon, J., Abdalla, L., Dombrowe, M., Woinek, C., Margraf, J., & Blackwell, S. E. (2023, December 21). Inducing Positive Involuntary Mental Imagery in Daily Life Using Personalized Photograph Stimuli.
  • Blackwell, S. E., Rölver, A., Margraf, J., & Woud, M. L. (2023, December 6). The Effect of Positive Mental Imagery versus Positive Verbal Thoughts on Anhedonia.
  • Würtz, F., Kunna, M., Lindgraf, C., Blackwell, S. E., Margraf, J., Everaert, J., & Woud, M. L. (2023). Interpretation Biases in Anxiety – A Three-Level Meta-Analysis.
  • Kiefer, C., Woud, M. L., Blackwell, S. E., & Mayer, A. (2023, September 4). Average Treatment Effects on Binary Outcomes with Stochastic Covariates.
  • Bagheri, M., Woud, M. L., Feller, A., Laudi, J., Kirchner, G. D., Schneider, H., Margraf, J., & Blackwell, S. E. (2023, July 12). Investigating the Role of Imagery Vividness in the Experience of Involuntary Memories of Previously-Imagined Positive Scenarios.
  • Cwik, J. C., Spies, J. D., Kessler, H., Herpertz, S., Woud, M. L., Blackwell, S. E., … Köhler, K. (2023, May 16). Psychometric properties of the German version of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5) in routine clinical settings: a multi-trait/multi-method study in civilians and military personnel.
  • MacLennan K., Schwannauer M., McLaughlin A. L., Allan, S., Blackwell, S. E., Ashworth, F., & Chan, S. W. Y. (2023, May). Project Soothe: A pilot study evaluating the mood effects of soothing images collected using a citizen science approach [version 1; peer review: awaiting peer review]. Wellcome Open Research, 8:218. 

Journal articles

in press
  • Blackwell, S. E. (in press). Using the ‘Leapfrog’ Design as a Simple Form of Adaptive Platform Trial to Develop, Test, and Implement Treatment Personalization Methods in Routine Practice. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research.
  • Bagheri, M., Woud, M. L., Fachri Oglou, I., Fachri Oglou, F., Ratzkowski, J. D. J., Margraf, J., & Blackwell, S. E. (in press). An Experimental Investigation of the Causal Role of Mental Imagery in the Experience of Involuntary Memories. Journal of Emotion and Psychopathology  (view preprint version)
  • Abado, E., Aue, T., Pourtois, G., & Okon-Singer, H. (2024). Expectancy and attention bias to spiders: Dissecting anticipation and allocation processes using ERPs. Psychophysiology, 00, e14546.
  • Würtz, F., Kube, T., Woud, M. L., Margraf, J., & Blackwell, S. E. (2024). Reduced Belief Updating in the Context of Depressive Symptoms – An Investigation of the Associations with Interpretation Biases and Self-Evaluation. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 48, 225-241.
  • Fink-Lamotte, J., Hilbert, K., Bentz, D., Blackwell, S. E., Boehnke, J. R., Burghardt, J., Cludius, B., Ehrenthal, J. C., Elsaesser, M., Haberkamp, A., Hechler, T., Kräplin, A., Paret, C., Schulze, L., Wilker, S. & Niemeyer, H., (2024). Response to responsible research assessment I and II from the perspective of the DGPs working group on open science in clinical psychology. Metapsychology, 8, MP.2023.3794.  
  • Machulska, A., Woud, M. L., Brailovskaia, J., Margraf, J., & Klucken, T. (2024). Nicotine-related interpretation biases in cigarette smoking individuals. Scientific Reports, 14: 4796.
  • Haehner, P., Würtz, F., Kritzler, S., Kunna, M., Luhmann, M., & Woud, M.L. (2024). The relationship between the perception of major life events and depression: A systematic scoping review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders349, 145–157. 
  • Deisenhofer, A.-K., Barkham, M., Beierl, E. T., Schwartz, B., Aafjes-van Doorn, K., Beevers, C. G., Berwian, I. M., Blackwell, S. E., Bockting, C. L., Brakemeier, E.-L., Brown, G., Buckman, J. E. J., Castonguay, L. G., Cusack, C. E., Dalgleish, T., de Jong, K., Delgadillo, J., DeRubeis, R. J., Driessen, E., … Cohen, Z. D. (2024). Implementing precision methods in personalizing psychological therapies: Barriers and possible ways forward. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 172, 104443.
  • Bibi, A., Blackwell, S. E., & Margraf, J. (2024). Positive Mental Imagery and Mental Health amongst University Students in Pakistan. International Journal of Psychology, 59, 55-63.
  • Abado, E., Aue, T., & Okon-Singer, H. (2023). Spider vs. Guns: Expectancy and attention biases to phylogenetic threat do not extend to ontogenetic threat. Frontiers in Psychology, 14.
  • Blackwell, S. E., Schönbrodt, F. D., Woud, M. L., Wannemüller, A., Bektas, B., Rodrigues, M. B., Hirdes, J., Stumpp, M., & Margraf, J. (2023). Demonstration of a ‘leapfrog’ randomized controlled trial as a method to accelerate the development and optimization of psychological interventions. Psychological Medicine, 53, 6113-6123.   
  • Blackwell, S. E., Wilhelm, F. H., Reinecke, A., Margraf, J., & Woud, M. L. (2023). Measuring Symptom-Specific Panic-Relevant Associations Using Single-Target Implicit Association Tests. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 47,720–731.
  • Landrø, N. I., Harmer, C. J., Blackwell, S. E., Ragnhild, B., Dawson, G. R., Solbø Hagen, H., Goodwin, G., Kingslake, J., Klovning, A., Klungsøyr, O., Schjøtt-Pedersen, O., Sæther, A. K., Stensland Torgersen, K., Vaaler, A., Andreassen, O. A., Røssberg., J. I. (2023). Combining Antidepressants and Attention Bias Modification in Primary Health Care (Deptreat): Protocol for a Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 133, 107326.
  • Cludius, B., Hummel, J., Limburg, K., Woud, M.L., & Takano, K. (2023). Development and validation of the ambiguous scenario task for perfectionistic concerns for university students. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 79, 101811. 
  • Ehring, T. & Woud, M.L. (2023) Towards a better understanding of the role of reappraisal in psychopathology and its treatment: Commentary on “Reappraising Reappraisal: An Expanded View”, Cognition and Emotion, 37(3), 378-383, 
  • Hummel, J., Cludius, B., Woud, M.L., Holdenrieder, J., Mende, N., Huber, V., Limburg, K., & Takano, K. (2023). The causal relationship between perfectionism and negative affect: Two experimental studies. Personality and Individual Differences, 200, 111895. 
  • Lipp, A., Macit, B., Woud, M.L., Dere, E., & Zlomuzica, A. (2023). Conscious knowledge of CS-UCS contingency information affects extinction retrieval of conditioned disgust responses: Findings from an online de novo disgust conditioning task. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 23(3), 100368. 
  • Schäfer, S. K., Lüder, C. C., Porcheret, K., Hu, X., Margraf, J., Michael, T., Holmes, E.A., Werner, G. G., Wilhelm, I., Woud, M.L., Zeng, S., Friesen, E., Haim-Nachum, S., Lass-Hennemann, J., Lieb, K., Kunzler, A.M., Wirth, B.E., & Sopp, M.R. (2023). To sleep or not to sleep, that is the question: A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effect of post-trauma sleep on intrusive memories of analog trauma. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 167, 104359. 
  • Moritz, S., Penney, D., Missmann, F., Weidinger, S., & Schmotz, S. (2023). Self-Help Habit Replacement in Individuals With Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors: A Proof-of-Concept Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Dermatology159(9), 992–995.
  • Moritz, S., Penney, D., Mißmann, F., Snorrason, I., & Schmotz, S. (2023). Same but different? Phenomenological differences among various types of body-focused repetitive behaviors. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry35(4), 252–259.
  • Blackwell, S. E., Ehring, T., Gladwin, T., Margraf, J., & Woud, M. L. (2023). The relationship between self-traumatized and self-vulnerable automatic associations and posttraumatic stress symptoms among adults who have experienced a distressing life event. Current Psychology, 42, 11674–11684.
  • Würtz, F., Steinman, S., Blackwell, S. E., Wilhelm, F. H., Reinecke, A., Adolph, D., Margraf, J., & Woud, M. L. (2023). Effects of Training Body-Related Interpretations on Panic-Related Cognitions and Symptoms. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 47, 494-509.
  • Würtz, F., Blackwell, S. E., Margraf, J., & Woud, M. L. (2022). The world dangerous it is – The scrambled sentences task for in the context of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 13(3), 20438087221124737.
  •  Blackwell, S. E., & Woud, M. L. (2022). Making the leap: From experimental psychopathology to clinical trials. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 13(1), 20438087221080076.
  •  Würtz, F., Zahler, L., Blackwell, S. E., Margraf, J., Bagheri, M., & Woud, M. L. (2022). Scrambled but valid? The scrambled sentences task as a measure of interpretation biases in psychopathology: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 93, 102133.
  •  Würtz, F., Krans, J., Blackwell, S. E., Cwik, J. C., Margraf, J., & Woud, M. L. (2022). Using Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal Training to Manipulate Appraisals about the Self and the World in Analog Trauma. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 46, 232-246.
  • Labrenz, F., Woud, M.L., Elsenbruch, S., & Icenhour, A. (2022). The good, the bad and the ugly – Chances, challenges and clinical implications of avoidance research in psychosomatic medicine. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 13, 841734. 
  • Woud, M.L. (2022). Interpretational biases in emotional psychopathology. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 29(3), 520–523. 
  • Woud, M.L., Wittekind C.E., & Würtz, F. (2022). Cognitive Bias Modification bei Symptomen der Posttraumatischen Belastungsstörung. Verhaltenstherapie, 32, 139–147. 
  • Dempsey-Jones, H., Steudte-Schmiedgen, S., Browning, M., Makin, T., Woud, M.L., Harmer, C.J., ... & Reinecke, A. (2021). Human perceptual learning is delayed by the NMDA receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 35, 253-264. 
  • Westermann, K., Woud, M. L., Cwik, J. C., Graz, C., Nyhuis, P., Margraf, J., & Blackwell, S. E. (2021). Feasibility of computerized positive mental imagery training as a treatment adjunct in inpatient mental health settings: a randomized controlled trial. BJPsychOpen, 7, e203.
  • Zahler, L., Meyers, M., Woud, M. L., Blackwell, S. E., Margraf, J., & Velten, J. (2021). Using three indirect measures to assess the role of sexuality-related associations and interpretations for women’s sexual desire: An Internet-based experimental study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 50, 2471-2484.
  • Abado, E., Aue, T., & Okon-Singer, H. (2021). Cognitive Biases in Blood-Injection-Injury Phobia: A Review. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12.
  • Wannemüller, A., Kumsta, R., Jöhren, H-P., Eley, T. C., Teismann, T., Moser, D., Rayner, C., Breen, G., Schaumburg, S., Blackwell, S. E., & Margraf, J. (2021). Genes in treatment: polygenic risk scores for different psychopathologies, neuroticism, educational attainment and IQ and the outcome of two different exposure-based fear treatments. The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 22, 699-712.
  • Woud, M. L., Blackwell, S. E., Shkreli, L., Würtz, F., Cwik, J. C., Margraf, J., Holmes, E. A., Steudte-Schmiedgen, S., Herpertz, S., & Kessler, H. (2021). The effects of modifying dysfunctional appraisals in post-traumatic stress disorder using a form of cognitive bias modification: Results of a randomized controlled trial in an inpatient setting. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 90, 386-402.
  • Pile, V., Smith, P., Leamy, M., Oliver, A., Blackwell, S. E., Meiser-Stedman, R., Dunn, B. D., Holmes, E. A., & Lau, J. Y. F. (2021). Harnessing mental imagery and enhancing memory specificity: developing a brief early intervention for depressive symptoms in adolescence. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 45, 885-901.
  • Pile, V., Smith, P., Leamy, M., Oliver, A., Bennett, E., Blackwell, S. E., Meiser-Stedman, R., Stringer, D., Dunn, B. D., Holmes, E. A., Lau, J. Y. F. (2021). A feasibility randomised controlled trial of a brief early intervention for adolescent depression that targets emotional mental images and memory specificity (IMAGINE trial). Behaviour Research and Therapy, 143, 103876.
  • Wong, S. F., Vaillancourt, S., Grossman, S., Kelly-Turner, K., Blackwell, S. E., Ellenbogen, M. A. (2021) Intranasal oxytocin increases state anhedonia following imagery training of positive social outcomes in individuals lower in extraversion, trust-altruism, and openness to experience. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 165, 8-17.
  • Bibi, A., Blackwell, S. E., & Margraf, J. (2021). Mental health, suicidal ideation, and experience of bullying among university students in Pakistan. Journal of Health Psychology, 26, 1185-1196.
  • Blackwell, S. E. & Heidenreich, T. (2021). Cognitive Behavior Therapy at the crossroads. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 14, 1-22.
  • Blackwell, S. E. (2021). Mental imagery in the science and practice of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy: past, present, and future perspectives. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 14, 160-181.
  • Koerner, N., & Blackwell, S. E. (2021). Mental imagery in chronic worry and generalized anxiety disorder: Shining a spotlight on a key research and clinical target. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 137, 103785.
  • Blackwell, S. E., Dooley, D., Würtz, F., Woud, M. L., & Margraf, J. (2020). Inducing positive involuntary mental imagery in everyday life: an experimental investigation. Memory, 28, 1157-1172. 
  • Meyer, T., Brewin, C.R., King, J.A., Nijmeijer, D., Woud, M.L., & Becker, E.S. (2020). Arresting visuospatial stimulation is insufficient to disrupt analogue traumatic intrusions. PloS one, 15(2), e0228416. 
  • Shkreli, L*., Woud, M.L.*, Kroj, A.E., Waldhauser, G.T., Kumsta R., & Reinecke, A. (2020). Angiotensin involvement in trauma processing – Exploring candidate neurocognitive mechanisms of preventing posttraumatic stress symptoms. Neuropsychopharmacology, 45, 507-514. * Authors contributed equally 
  • Abado, E., Aue, T., & Okon-Singer, H. (2020). The Missing Pieces of the Puzzle: A Review on the Interactive Nature of A-Priori Expectancies and Attention Bias toward Threat. Brain Sciences, 10(10), 745.‏
  • Abado, E., Richter, T., & Okon-Singer, H. (2020). Attention biases toward negative stimuli. In T. Aue & H. Okon-Singer (Eds.), Cognitive biases in health and psychiatric disorders: Neurophysiological foundations. San Diego: Elsevier.
  • Abado, E., Sagi, J., Silber, N., De Houwer, J., Aue, T., & Okon-Singer, H. (2020). Reducing attention bias in spider fear by manipulating expectancies. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 135, 103729.‏
  • Zahler, L., Sommer, K., Reinecke, A., Wilhelm, F.H., Margraf, J., & Woud, M.L. (2020). Cognitive vulnerability in the context of panic: Assessment of panic-related associations and interpretations in individuals with varying levels of anxiety sensitivity. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 44, 858-873. 
  • Iyadurai, L., Hales, S. A., Blackwell, S. E., Young, K., & Holmes, E. A. (2020). Targeting intrusive imagery using a competing task technique: a case study. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 48, 739-744. 
  • Blackwell, S. E. (2020). Clinical efficacy of cognitive bias modification interventions. Lancet Psychiatry, 7, 465-467. pdf.gif
  • Spies, J. P., Woud, M. L., Kessler, H., Rau, H., Willmund, G. D., Köhler, K., Herpertz, S., Blackwell, S. E., Bovin, M. J., Marx, B., & Cwik, J. C. (2020). Psychometric properties of the German version of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5) in clinical routine settings: study design and protocol of a multitrait-multimethods study. BMJ Open, 10:e036078.    
  • Preis, M. A., Zellerhoff, M., Brockmeyer, T. (2020). Approach bias modification training to increase physical activity: A pilot randomized controlled trial in healthy volunteers. Journal of Health Psychology, 1-17.
  • Preis, M. A., Schlegel, K., Stoll, L., Blomberg, M., Schmidt, H., Wuensch-Leiteritz, W., Leiteritz, A., Brockmeyer, T. (2020). Improving emotion recognition in anorexia nervosa: an experimental proof-of-concept study. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 1-9.
  • Bibi, A., Margraf, J., & Blackwell, S. E. (2020). Positive imagery cognitive bias modification for symptoms of depression amongst university students in Pakistan: a pilot study. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 11. 
  • Miragall, M., Borrego, A., Cebolla, A., Etchemendy, E., Navarro-Siurana, J., Llorens, R., Blackwell, S. E., & Baños, R. M. (2020). Effect of an upright (vs. Stooped) posture on interpretation bias, imagery, and emotions. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 68, 101560.. 
  • Kessler, H., Schmidt, A.-C., James, E. L., Blackwell, S. E., von Rauchhaupt, M., Harren, K., Kehyayan, A., Clark, I. A., Sauvage, M., Herpertz, S., Axmacher, N., & Holmes, E. A. (2020). Visuospatial computer game play after memory reactivation delivered three days after a traumatic film reduces the number of intrusive memories of the experimental trauma. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 67, 101454. 
  • Blackwell, S. E., Woud, M. L., Margraf, J., & Schönbrodt, F. D. (2019). Introducing the leapfrog design: A simple Bayesian adaptive rolling trial design for accelerated treatment development and optimization. Clinical Psychological Science, 7, 1222-1243. (view preprint version)
  • Cwik, J.C., Vahle, N., Woud, M.L., Potthoff, D., Kessler, H., Sartory, G., & Seitz, R.J. (2019). Reduced gray matter volume in the left prefrontal, occipital, and temporal regions as predictors for posttraumatic stress disorder: A voxel-based morphometric study. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 270(5), 577–588. 
  • McNally, R.J., & Woud, M.L. (2019). Innovations in the study of appraisals and PTSD. A commentary. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 43, 295-302. 
  • Pulcu, E., Shkreli, L., Guzman Holst, C., Woud, M.L., Craske, M., Browning, M., & Reinecke A. (2019). The effects of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan on appetitive versus aversive learning: A randomized controlled trial. Biological Psychiatry, 86(5), 397–404. 
  • Raeder, F., Woud, M.L., Schneider, S., Totzeck, C., Adolph, D., Margraf, J., & Zlomuzica, A. (2019). Reactivation and evaluation of mastery experiences promotes exposure benefit in height phobia. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 43, 948-958. 
  • Salemink, E., Woud, M.L., Roos, M., Wiers, R.W., & Lindgren, K. (2019). Reducing alcohol-related interpretive bias in negative affect situations: Using a scenario-based Cognitive Bias Modification training paradigm. Addictive Behaviors, 88, 106–113. 
  • Woud, M.L., Heeren, A., Shkreli, L., Meyer, T., Egeri, L., Cwik, J.C., Zlomuzica, A., Kessler, H., & Margraf, J. (2019). Investigating the effect of proactive interference control training on intrusive memories. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 10(1), 1611092. 
  • Woud, M.L., Kleim, B., & Cwik, J.C. (2019). Editorial for the special issue on negative appraisals in trauma: Current status and future directions for research. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 43, 139-142. 
  • De Kleine, R.A., Woud, M.L., Ferentzi, H., Hendriks, G.J., Broekman, T., Becker, E.S., & Van Minnen, A. (2019). Appraisal-based cognitive bias modification in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder: A randomised clinical trial. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 10(1), 1625690. 
  • Blackwell, S. E. (2019). Mental imagery: from basic research to clinical practice. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 29, 235-247.  
  • Velten, J., Blackwell, S. E., Margraf, J., & Woud, M. L. (2019). Assessing Cognitive Appraisals Related to Sexual Function: A Scenario-Based Approach. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 48, 781-794. 
  • Woud, M. L., Cwik, J. C., de Kleine, R. A., Blackwell, S. E., Würtz, F., Margraf, J. (2019). Assessing trauma-related appraisals by means of a scenario-based approach. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 43, 185-198. 
  • Murphy, F. C., Peers, P. V., Blackwell, S. E., Holmes, E. A., & Manly, T. (2019). Anticipated and imagined futures: prospective cognition and depressed mood following brain injury. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 91-109.
  • Glaser, T., Woud, M.L., Islander, M.L., Schmalenstroth, V., & Vo, T.M. (2018). Positive, negative, or all relative? Evaluative conditioning of ambivalence. Acta Psychologica, 185, 155–165. 
  • Kessler, H., Holmes, E. A., Blackwell, S. E., Schmidt, A., Schweer, J. M., Bücker, A., Herpertz, S., Axmacher, N., Kehyayan, A. (2018). Reducing intrusive memories of trauma using a visuospatial interference intervention with inpatients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 86, 1076-1090. 
  • Hales, S. A., Di Simplicio, M., Iyadurai, L., Blackwell, S. E., Young, K., Fairburn, C. G., Geddes, J. R., Goodwin, G. M., & Holmes, E. A. (2018). Imagery-focused cognitive therapy (ImCT) for mood instability and anxiety in a small sample of patients with bipolar disorder: a pilot clinical audit. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 46, 706-725. 
  • Preis, M., Vögtle, E., Dreyer, N., Seel, S., Wagner, R., Hanshans, K., Reyersbach, R., Pieh, C., Mühlberger, A. & Probst, T. (2018). Long-Term Outcomes of a Multimodal Day-Clinic Treatment for Chronic Pain under the Conditions of Routine Care. Pain Research and Management. Article ID 9472104. (geteilte Erstautorenschaft).
  • Blackwell, S. E., Westermann, K., Woud, M. L., Cwik, J. C., Neher, T., Graz, C., Nyhuis, P. W., & Margraf, J. (2018). Computerized positive mental imagery training versus cognitive control training versus treatment as usual in inpatient mental health settings: study protocol for a randomized controlled feasibility trial. BMC Pilot and Feasibility Studies, 4: 133. 
  • Woud, M. L., Blackwell, S. E., Cwik, J. C., Margraf, J., Holmes, E. A., Steudte-Schmiedgen, S., Herpertz, S., & Kessler, H. (2018). Augmenting inpatient treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder with a computerized cognitive bias modification procedure targeting appraisals (CBM-App): Protocol for a randomized controlled trial. BMJ Open, 8: e019964. 
  • Zhang, X., Woud, M.L., Becker, E.S., & Margraf, J. (2018). Do health‐related factors predict major depression? A longitudinal epidemiologic study. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 25(3), 378–387. 
  • Zlomuzica, A., Preusser, F., Roberts, S., Woud, M.L., Lester, K., Dere, E., ... & Margraf, J. (2018). The role of KIBRA in reconstructive episodic memory. Molecular Medicine, 24(1), 7. 
  • Zlomuzica, A., Woud, M.L., Machulska, A., Kleimt, K., Dietrich, L., Wolf, O. T., ... & Margraf, J. (2018). Deficits in episodic memory and mental time travel in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 83, 42–54. 
  • Pile, V., Smith, P., Leamy, M., Blackwell, S. E., Meiser-Stedman, R., Stringer, D., Ryan, E. G., Dunn, B. D., Holmes, E. A., & Lau, J. Y. F. (2018). A brief early intervention for adolescent depression that targets emotional mental images and memories: protocol for a feasibility randomised controlled trial (IMAGINE trial). BMC Pilot and Feasibility Studies, 4, 97. 
  • Woud, M. L., Blackwell, S. E., Steudte-Schmiedgen, S., Browning, M., Holmes, E. A., Harmer, C. J., Margraf, J., & Reinecke, A. (2018). Investigating d-cycloserine as a potential pharmacological enhancer of an emotional bias learning procedure. Psychopharmacology, 32, 569-577.
  •  Woud, M. L., Zlomuzica, A., Cwik, J., Margraf, J., Shrekli, L., Blackwell, S. E., Gladwin, T., & Ehring, T. (2018). Effects of appraisal training on responses to recalling a distressing autobiographical event. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 56, 26-34. 
  • Iyadurai, L., Blackwell, S. E., Meiser-Stedman, R., Watson, P. C., Bonsall, M. B., Geddes, J. R., Nobre, A. C., & Holmes, E. A. (2018). Preventing intrusive memories after trauma via a brief intervention involving Tetris computer game play in the Emergency Department: a proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial. Molecular Psychiatry, 23, 674-682. 
  • Woud, M. L., Cwik, J. C., Blackwell, S. E., Kleim, B., Holmes, E. A., Adolph, D., Zhang, H., & Margraf, J. (2018). Does napping enhance the effects of Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal training? An experimental study. PloS ONE 13(2): e0192837.
  • Blackwell, S. E., Woud, M. L., & MacLeod, C. (2017) A question of control? Examining the role of control conditions in experimental psychopathology using the example of cognitive bias modification research. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 20: e54. pdf.gif
  • Hutschemaekers, M.H., Woud, M.L., Becker, E.S., & Rinck, M. (2017). Reducing alcohol-related interpretation biases in young hazardous drinkers by Cognitive Bias Modification - Interpretation Training. SUCHT, 62(6), 366–373. 
  • Maas, J., Woud, M.L., Keijsers, G., Rinck, M., Becker, E.S., & Wiers, R.W. (2017). The attraction of sugar: An association between body mass index and impaired avoidance of sweet snacks. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 7, 1-20. 
  • Preis, M. A., Golm, D., Kröner-Herwig, B. & Barke, A. (2017). Examining differences in cognitive and affective theory of mind between persons with high and low extent of somatic symptoms: an experimental study. BMC Psychiatry, 17(1), 200., ISSN: 1471-244X.
  • Woud, M.L., Verwoerd, J.R.L., & Krans, J. (2017). Modification of Cognitive Biases related to posttraumatic stress: A systematic review and research agenda. Clinical Psychology Review, 54, 81–95. 
  • Zhang, X.C., Kuchinke, L., Woud, M.L., Velten, J., & Margraf, J. (2017). Survey method matters: Online/offline questionnaires and face-to-face or telephone interviews differ. Computers in Human Behavior, 71, 172-180. 
  • Murphy, S. E., O’Donoghue, M. C., Blackwell, S. E., Nobre, A. C., Browning, M., & Holmes, E. A. (2017). Increased Rostral Anterior Cingulate Activity following positive mental imagery training in healthy older adults. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 12, 1950-1958. 
  • de Voogd, L., de Hullu, E., Burnett Heyes, S., Blackwell, S. E., Wiers, R. W., Salemink, E. (2017). Imagine the bright side of life: A randomized controlled trial of two types of interpretation bias modification procedure targeting adolescent anxiety and depression. PLoS ONE 12(7): e0181147. 
  • Renner, F., Ji, J. L., Pictet, A., Holmes, E. A., & Blackwell, S. E. (2017). Effects of engaging in repeated mental imagery of future positive events on behavioural activation in individuals with major depressive disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 41, 369-380. 
  • Blackwell, S. E., & Holmes, E. A. (2017). Brightening the day with flashes of positive mental imagery: a case study of an individual with depression. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 73, 579-589.
  • Horsch, A., Vial, Y., Favrod, C., Harari, M. M., Blackwell, S. E., Watson, P., Iyadurai, L., Bonsall, M. B., & Holmes, E. A. (2017). Reducing intrusive traumatic memories after emergency caesarean section: a proof-of-principle randomized controlled study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 94, 36-47.
  • Burnett Heyes, S., Pictet, A., Mitchell, H., Raeder, S. M., Lau, J. Y. F., Holmes, E. A., & Blackwell, S.E. (2017). Mental imagery-based training to modify mood and cognitive bias in adolescents. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 41, 73-88.
  • Hitchcock, C., Werner-Seidler, A., Blackwell, S. E., & Dalgleish, T. (2017). Autobiographical episodic memory-based training for the treatment of mood, anxiety and stress-related disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 52, 92-107. 
  • Wannemueller, A., Adoph, D., Joehren, H., Blackwell, S. E. & Margraf, J. (2017). Psychophysiological reactivity of currently dental phobic-, remitted dental phobic- and never-dental phobic individuals during exposure to dental-related and other affect-inducing materials. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 90, 76-86. 
  • Ji, J. L., Holmes, E. A., & Blackwell, S. E. (2017). Seeing light at the end of the tunnel: positive prospective mental imagery and optimism in depression. Psychiatry Research, 247, 155-162. 
  • Cwik, J. C., Till, B., Bieda, A., Blackwell, S. E., Walter, C., Teismann, T. (2017). Measuring attitudes towards suicide: Preliminary evaluation of an attitude towards suicide scale. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 72, 56-65.
  • Di Simplicio, M., Renner, F., Blackwell, S. E., Mitchell, H., Stratford, H. J., Watson, P., Myers, N., Nobre, A. C., Lau-Zhu, A., & Holmes, E. A. (2016). An investigation of mental imagery in bipolar disorder: Exploring “the mind’s eye”. Bipolar Disorders, 18, 669-683.  
  • Markus, W., de Weert-van Oene, G., Woud, M.L., Becker, E.S., & de Jong, C. (2016). Are addiction-related memories malleable by working memory competition? Transient effects on memory vividness and nicotine craving in a randomized lab experiment. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 52, 83–91. 
  • Moss, A., Curran, H. V., Bloomfield, M. A. P., Kamboj, S. K., Blackwell, S. E., & Freeman, T. P. (2016). Bringing together pharmacological and psychological approaches to mental health research. Lancet Psychiatry, 3, 700-702, 
  • Woud, M.L., Becker, E.S., Rinck, M., Harmer, C.J., & Reinecke, A. (2016). Assessment of automatic associations with bodily sensations and agoraphobic situations in panic disorder. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 52, 105–109. 
  • Woud, M.L., Maas, J., Wiers, R.W., Becker, E.S., & Rinck, M. (2016). Assessment of tobacco-related approach and attentional biases in smokers, cravers, ex-smokers, and non-smokers. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 172. 
  • Woud, M.L., Salemink, E., Gladwin, T.E., Wiers, R.W., Becker, S.E., Lindenmeyer, L., & Rinck, M. (2016). Alcohol homograph priming in alcohol-dependent inpatients. SUCHT, 62(4), 217–224. 
  • Woud, M.L., Zhang, X.C., Becker, E.S., Zlumozica, A., & Margraf, J. (2016). Catastrophizing misinterpretations predict somatoform-related symptoms and new onsets of somatoform disorders. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 81, 31–37. 
  • Holmes, E. A., Blackwell, S. E., Burnett Heyes, S., Renner, F., & Raes, F. (2016). Mental imagery in depression: phenomenology, potential mechanisms, and treatment implications. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 12, 249-280. 
  • Holmes, E. A., Bonsall, M. B., Hales, S. A., Mitchell, H., Renner, F., Blackwell, S. E., Watson, P., Goodwin, G. M., & Di Simplicio, M. (2016). Applications of time-series analysis to mood fluctuations in bipolar disorder to promote treatment innovation: A case series. Translational Psychiatry, 6, e720.  
  • Blackwell, S. E., Browning, M., Mathews, A., Pictet, A., Welch, J., Davies, J., Watson, P., Geddes, J. R., & Holmes, E. A. (2015). Positive imagery-based cognitive bias modification as a web-based treatment tool for depressed adults: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical Psychological Science, 3, 91-111.
  • Kersbergen, I., Woud, M.L., & Field, M. (2015). The validity of different measures of automatic alcohol action tendencies. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors, 29(1), 225–230. 
  • Murphy, S. E., O’Donoghue, C. M., Drazich, E. H. S., Blackwell, S. E., Nobre, A. C., & Holmes, E. A. (2015). Imagining a brighter future: the effect of positive imagery training on mood, prospective mental imagery and emotional bias in older adults. Psychiatry Research, 230, 36-43.
  • Preis, M., Kallista, C., Kröger, L., Schlimme, S., Kröner-Herwig, B. & Barke, A. (2015). Fremdschamskala Göttingen (FSS-Gö). Psychometrikon [].  
  • Preis, M. A., Kröner-Herwig, B., Schmidt-Samoa, C., Dechent, P. & Barke, A. (2015). Neural correlates of empathy with pain show habituation effects. An fMRI study. PLoS ONE, 10(8). ISSN: 1932-6203.
  • Woud, M.L., Becker, E.S., Rinck, M., & Salemink, E. (2015). The relationship between drinking motives and alcohol-related interpretation biases. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 47, 102–110. 
  • Woud, M.L., Hutschemaekers, M.M.H., Rinck, M., & Becker, E.S. (2015). The manipulation of alcohol-related interpretation biases by means of cognitive bias modification – Interpretation (CBM-I). Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 49, 61–68. 
  • Williams, A. D., O’Moore, K., Blackwell, S. E., Smith, J., Holmes, E. A., & Andrews, G. (2015). Positive imagery cognitive bias modification (CBM) and internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT): A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Affective Disorders, 178, 131-141.
  • Stratford, H. J., Cooper, M. J., Di Simplicio, M., Blackwell, S. E., & Holmes, E. A. (2015). Psychological therapy for anxiety in bipolar spectrum disorders: a systematic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 35, 19-34.
  • Woud, M.L. & Becker, E.S. (2014). Editorial for the special issue on cognitive bias modification techniques: An introduction to a time traveller’s tale. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 38, 83-88. 
  • Torkan, H., Blackwell, S. E., Holmes, E. A., Kalantari, M., Neshat-Doost, H. T., Maroufi, M., & Talebi, H. (2014). Positive imagery cognitive bias modification in treatment-seeking patients with major depression in Iran: a pilot study. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 38, 132-145.
  • Woud, M.L., Pawelczak, S., Rinck, M., Lindenmeyer, J., Souren, P., Wiers, R.W., & Becker, E.S. (2014). Alcohol-related interpretation bias in alcohol-dependent patients. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 38(4), 1151–1159. 
  • Woud, M.L., Zhang, X.C., Becker, E.S., McNally, R.J., & Margraf, J. (2014). Don’t panic: Interpretation bias is predictive of new onsets of panic disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 28(1), 83–87. 
  • Rohrbacher, H., Blackwell, S. E., Holmes, E. A. & Reinecke, A. (2014). Optimizing the ingredients for imagery-based interpretation bias modification for depressed mood: is self-generation more effective than imagination alone? Journal of Affective Disorders, 152-154, 212-218.
  • Clarke, P. J. F., Nanthakumar, S., Notebaert, L., Holmes, E. A., Blackwell, S. E., & MacLeod, C. (2014).  Simply imagining sunshine, lollipops and rainbows will not budge the bias: The role of ambiguity in interpretive bias modification. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 38, 120-131.
  • Vassilopoulos, S.P., Blackwell, S. E., Missailidi, P., Kyritsi, A., & Ayfanti, M. (2014). The differential effects of written and spoken presentation for the modification of interpretation and judgmental bias in children. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 42, 535-554.
  • Williams, A. D., Blackwell, S. E., Holmes, E. A., & Andrews, G. (2013). Positive imagery cognitive bias modification (CBM) and internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) versus control CBM and iCBT for depression: Study protocol for a parallel-group randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open, 3: e004049.
  • Preis, M. A., Schmidt-Samoa, C., Dechent, P. & Kröner-Herwig, B. (2013). The effects of prior pain experience on neural correlates of empathy for pain: An fMRI study. Pain, 154(3), 411-418., ISSN: 0304-3959.
  • Rinck, M., & Telli, S., Kampmann, I.L., Woud, M.L., Kerstholt, M., te Velthuis, S., Wittkowski, M., & Becker, E.S. (2013). Training approach-avoidance of smiling faces affects emotional vulnerability in socially anxious individuals. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 481. 
  • Woud, M.L., Becker, E.S., Lange, W.G., & Rinck, M. (2013). To like or not to like: The effect of approach-avoidance training on neutral, angry and smiling face stimuli. Psychological Reports, 113(1), 1211–1228. 
  • Woud, M.L. & Krans, J. (2013). Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) technieken bij posttraumatische stresstoornis (PTSS): Eerste bevindingen en toekomstige perspectieven. Directieve Therapie, 33, 170-187.
  • Woud, M.L., Maas, J., Becker, E.S., & Rinck, M. (2013). Make the manikin move: Symbolic approach-avoidance responses induce implicit and explicit evaluation bias. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 25(6), 738–744. 
  • Woud, M.L., Postma, P., Holmes, E.A., & Mackintosh, B. (2013). Reducing analogue trauma symptoms by computerized cognitive reappraisal training – Considering a cognitive prophylaxis? Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 44(3), 312–315. 
  • Woud, M.L., Wiers, R.W., Pawelczak, S., Becker, E.S., Lindenmeyer, J., & Rinck, M. (2013). Does negative affect prime alcohol in addicted inpatients? A large-scale clinical investigation of the moderating role of depression and executive control. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 3, 279–290. 
  • Williams, A. D., Blackwell, S. E., Mackenzie, A., Holmes, E. A., & Andrews, G. (2013). Combining imagination and reason in the treatment of depression: A randomized controlled trial of internet-based cognitive bias modification and internet-CBT for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 793-799.
  • Blackwell, S. E., Rius-Ottenheim, N., Schulte-van Maaren, Y. W. M., Carlier, I. V. E., Middelkoop, V. D., Zitman, F. G., Spinhoven, P., Holmes, E. A., & Giltay, E. J. (2013). Optimism and mental imagery: a possible cognitive marker to promote wellbeing? Psychiatry Research, 206, 56-61.
  • Browning, M., Blackwell, S. E., & Holmes, E. A. (2013). The use of cognitive bias modification and imagery in the understanding and treatment of depression. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences, 14, 243–260.
  • Lang, T. J., Blackwell, S. E., Harmer, C., Davison, P., & Holmes, E. A. (2012). Cognitive bias modification using mental imagery for depression: developing a novel computerized intervention to change negative thinking styles. European Journal of Personality, 26, 145-157.
  • Scheibner, H., & Woud, M.L. (2012). Mit dem Joystick gegen die Abhängigkeit: Computer-Gestützte Trainings zur Rückfallprävention. Konturen, 3, 15-20. 
  • Preis, M. & Kröner-Herwig, B. (2012). Empathy for pain: The effects of prior experience and sex. European Journal of Pain, 16(9), 1311-1319., ISSN: 1532-2149.
  • Woud, M.L., Fitzgerald, D.A., Wiers, R. W., Rinck, M., & Becker, E.S. (2012). ‘Getting into the spirit’: Interpretation bias in heavy drinking students. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 26, 627–632. 
  • Woud, M.L., Holmes, E.A., Postma, P., Dalgleish, T., & Mackintosh, B. (2012). Ameliorating intrusive memories of distressing experiences using computerized reappraisal training. Emotion, 12(4), 778–784. 
  • Davies, C., Malik, A., Pictet, A., Blackwell, S. E., & Holmes, E. A. (2012). Involuntary Memories after a Positive Film are Dampened by a Visuospatial Task: Unhelpful in Depression but Helpful in Mania? Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 19, 341-351.
  • Vassilopolous, S. P., Blackwell, S. E., Moberly, N. J., & Karahaliou, E. (2012). Comparing imagery and verbal training instructions for the experimental modification of interpretation and judgmental bias in children. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 43, 594-601.
  • Woud, M.L., Anschutz, D., van Strien, T., & Becker, E.S. (2011). Thinspiration and fear of fat: A matter of approach avoidance. Appetite, 56(2), 451–455. 
  • Woud, M.L., Becker, E.S., & Rinck, M. (2011). Induction of implicit evaluation biases by approach avoidance training: A commentary to Vandenbosch & De Houwer. Cognition and Emotion, 25, 1331-1338. 
  • Woud, M.L., Ellwart, T., Rinck, M., & Becker, E.S. (2011). Task-irrelevant spider associations affect categorization performance. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 42(3), 309–316. 
  • Holmes, E. A., James, E. L., Blackwell, S. E., & Hales, S. (2011). ‘They flash upon that inward eye’. The Psychologist, 24, 340-343.
  • Blackwell, S. E., & Holmes, E. A. (2010). Modifying interpretation and imagination in clinical depression: A single case series using cognitive bias modification. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24, 338-350.
  • Müller, B.C.N, van Baaren, R.B., Ritter, S.M., Woud, M.L., Bergmann, H., Harakeh, Z., Engels, R.C. M.E., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2009). Tell me why…The influence of self-involvement on short term smoking behaviour. Addictive Behaviors, 34(5), 427–431. 

Bücher & Sammelbände

  • Woud, M.L. (2023). Interpretational processing biases in emotional psychopathology: From experimental investigation to clinical practice. Springer: New York.
  • Heidenreich, T., Tata, P., & Blackwell, S. (Eds.) (2019). Proceedings of the 9th World Congress of Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies. Tübingen: dgvt-Verlag.


  • Salemink, E., Woud, M.L., Bouwmann, V., & Mobach, L. (2023). Cognitive Bias Modification Training to Change Interpretation Biases. In M.L. Woud (Ed.), Interpretational processing biases in emotional psychopathology: From experimental investigation to clinical practiceSpringer. 
  • Woud, M.L., & Hofmann, S.G. (2023). Changing Biased Interpretations in CBT: A Brief History and Overview. In M.L. Woud (Ed.), Interpretational processing biases in emotional psychopathology: From experimental investigation to clinical practice 
  • Blackwell, S. E. (2023). Mental imagery and interpretational processing biases. In M. L. Woud (Ed.), Interpretational Processing Biases in Emotional Psychopathology: From Experimental Investigation to Clinical Practice (pp. 97–116). Springer International Publishing.
  • Hales, S. A., Young, K., Iyadurai, L., Blackwell, S. E., Kanstrup, M., & Holmes, E. A. (2022). Working with mental imagery in clinical psychology. In G. J. G. Asmundson (Ed.), Comprehensive Clinical Psychology, Second Edition. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 
  • Blackwell, S. E. (2020). Emotional Mental Imagery. In A. Abraham (Ed.), Cambridge Handbook of the Imagination (pp. 241-257). Cambridge University Press. pdf.gif
  • Kessler, H., Blackwell, S. E., & Kehyayan, A. (2017). Reconsolidation and trauma memory. In N. Axmacher & B. Rasch (Eds.), Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory Consolidation. Basel: Springer.
  • Hales, S., Blackwell, S. E., Di Simplicio, M., Iyadurai, L., Young, K., & Holmes, E. A. (2015). Imagery-based cognitive-behavioral assessment. In G. P. Brown & D. A. Clark (Eds.), Assessment in Cognitive Therapy. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Krans, J., Woud, M.L., Näring, G., Becker, E.S., & Holmes, E.A. (2010). Exploring involuntary recall in post-traumatic stress disorder from an information processing perspective. In J.H. Mace (Ed.), The act of remembering: Toward an understanding how we recall the pastWiley-Blackwell: Malden, U.S.A. 
  • Keijsers, G.P.J., Woud, M.L., & Becker, E.S. (2009). Psychotherapie en verandering van impliciete mentale processen. In S. Colijn, S. Bögels, & W. Trijsburg (Ed.), Leerboek Psychotherapie. De Tijdstroom: Utrecht. 

Diagnostische Instrumente

Öffentlichkeitsarbeit und Medien

  • Article for Aeon+Psyche magazine on positive involuntary imagery, “It’s possible to help more positive images pop into your mind” (September 2021):
  • Video interview for „The Integrative Therapist“ magazine (November 2019), about the 2019 article on mental imagery in the Journal of Psychotherapy Integration.
  •  Zimmerman, S. (2016). Mentales Vorkosten weckt die Lebensgeister. Gehirn und Geist, 10, 56. Article about the paper Renner et al. (2017) in Cognitive Therapy and Research.