Peter Fischer, Tobias Greitemeyer, Stefan Schulz-Hardt, Dieter Frey, Eva Jonas, and Tatjana Rudukha (2004)

Zivilcourage und Hilfeverhalten. Der Einfluss negativer sozialer Konsequenzen auf die Wahrnehmung prosozialen Verhaltens

Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie, 35(2):61-66.

In the present cross-cultural study, the mental representations of civil courage and helping behavior are compared. It is investigated whether prosocial behavior is designated as civil courage if the actor has to expect negative social consequences, whereas the judgment of helping behavior is not related to the anticipated negative social consequences. Subjects from Germany and the Ukraine received four scenarios in which an actor showed pro-social behavior. This person had to expect either high or low negative social consequences. For each scenario, the participants assessed the behavior described regarding its extent of civil courage and helping behavior. As expected, the manipulation of anticipated negative social consequences only affected the ratings of civil courage but not the ratings of helping behavior.

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